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Commissioned by King Francis I to assert authority. Portrays the king as a worldy ruler and confident leader known for being a "merry monarch" and hero of deeds, displayed by his portrait's confidence, medallion and silks. Example of Formalized quality--Clouet's suppression of modeling, which flattens features Francis's neck. Disproportion of head and body. To evoke this, Grunewald used ghastly realism and colorist expression. Christ's limp body, twisted feet, the dark greenish sky, ragged loincloth, and the expressions of Mary M. Patron: Guido GuersiReflects Catholic beliefs and incorporates several references to catholic doctrines such as the lamb symbol of the Christwhose wound spurts blood into the chalice.
Saint Sebastian on left and Saint Anthony on the right.
At the bottom, Lamentation. Themes of dire illness and miraculous healing.
Images served as warnings for increased devotion from monks and patients and as hope to the afflicted. Temptation of Saint Anthony Right panel displays 5 temptations attacking the saint, and another man suffering from 'Saint Anthony's Fire,' a disease affecting many during the s--often causing amputation.
Use of color: Heavily contrasts horror and hope by playing subtle tones against shocking dissonances of color. Chiaroscuro woodcut technique Witchcraft was a counter religion. Witches Sabbath focuses on nude witches gathered around a jar of potion and one flying through the air on a goat, suggesting that witchcraft is the inversion of Christianity. Symbolizes on sin and the need to focus on ones selfish desires before that of a heavenly reward.
Personal gratitude and wealth is sinful and people need to focus on spiritual wealth. Humanist era artist as a divinely inspired genius.
Albrecht's second self portrait. Intentially evokes medieval devotional images of Christ. His right hand resembles Christ's gesture of blessing by Byzantine icons as well as a reference to the artist's hand as a creative instrument. Idealized figures modeled after specific statues.
This depicts Durer's concept of the perfect male and female figures.
Reformation- key time when illustrations, prints and the Bible became accessible to people. Death exists at the bottom of the horse's feet int the form of a skull, corpse without eyes and lips. The Devil is behind the Knight, taunting and ignored, while the knight looks forward.
Psalm: Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil. Thought to be a reflection of Durer's artistic pysche. Also themed by Four Humors--specifically melancholy--hence. Marsilio Ficino, De vita triplici, artist born from Saturn named for the ancient Roman God and posses black bile humor and saturnine--capable of both inspired artistic frenzy and depression.
Often painted myths with seductive female nudes. Martin Luther -Key figure in the Protestant Reformation. Used inexpensive medium of print on paper. Depicted in German landscape. Venus wins by offering him Helen of Troy and starts trojan vs greek war. Bio: German monk, professor of theology, Catholic priest and leader in reform movement known as the Protestant Reformation.
Hand is symbolic of Christ's typical blessing pose in Byzantine depictions. Close realism that stemmed from 15th c. Flemish paintings. Surfaces of Holbein the younger's paintings are lustrous and details are exact. Often incorporated Italian ideas of monumental composition and sculpturesque form. Gold -Divine reference Byzantine?
Two men stand at opposite ends of a side table decked with objects reflective of their interests in learning and the arts math, compasses, flute, globe and hymnbook with Luther's translation of Ten Commandments. Anamorphic image: can only by viewed with a cylindrical mirror. Stature and poetry by Richard Morison flatter the king and emphasize the succession.
One hand holding a scepter and another in a blessing position. This pose is common to holy figures. Depicts a miser's last moments. Many examples of the opposition of good and evil. Good: Angel pointing to the crucifix that gives a single ray of light. And the rosary the miser's younger self rubs in hypocrisy. Evil: demon carrying the fires of hell upper right which balances the crucifix, Death with an arrow left.
Demons in and around the chest.
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Derived from "Art of Dying" - popular death bed scene in the late 15th c. Oversized fruits and birds are symbols of fertility. Right: inky darkness; unidentifiable creatures of chemical apparatus. Depicts a man transacting business; money transactions were a big distraction of Christians from their religious duties in 16th c.
Ex: wife shows more interest in the money than in reading her prayer book. Massys incorporates religious, moral, and spiritual symbols carafe with water and a candlestick. The couple ignores them, focusing solely on the money. Convex reflection on mirror depicts man reading a bible with church behind him. Play on age vs.
Beauty; Male vs. Female; competition between sexes Married for wealth instead of love. Aertsen contrasts this with a depiction of a life of sloth, lust and gluttony oysters scattered on ground and people eating under the roof in background Theme: Allusions to salvation through Christ. By illustrating more than proverbs, Bruegel indulged his Netherlandish people's obsession with proverbs and passion for detailed and clever imagery. One painting in a series of six others depicting seasonal changes.
This was painted during a winter in Draws viewer in diagonally into the foreground and background. Peter and displays human scale and relation. Each column is composed of five sections made of wood by lost wax process. The columns stand on the spot do former ancient baldacchino columns, marking the past. Bartholomew is about to be skinned alive as death hence the knife.
His arm structure fills the corners of frame and guides viewers' eyes towards the knife.
He looks up towards the light heavenly alluding to his continued faith even in death. Phillip is being hoisted in position to die on the cross. His body is limp and bent in pain. His rough body alludes to a relationship to his tormentors.
Can't tell where architecture ends and art begins. Gaulli painted shadows to help emphasize other spectrum hell of piece. In contrast to Donatelo and Michelangelo's David's potrayal after the encounter, Bernini depicted the biblical scene in the very action of David slinging his weapon. Teresa, a nun during the Spanish Counter-Reformatiom experienced moments of ecstasy after she lost her father in which she blamed on the the fire arrow being thrust into her heart repeatedly.
Merges painting, architecture and sculpture for theatrical scene. Differences in texture rough garment of nun, feathery wings, clouds and smooth skin. The images with frames are fresco painted as if they were on easels. Depicts the saint-to-be at the moment of his conversion, flat on his back with his arms thrown up. Use of tenebrism.